Gastritis is a severe inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In severe cases, the disease spreads to the deep layers of the gastric wall, leading to corrosive and ulcerative lesions. Gastritis refers to diseases that lead not only to a deterioration in the quality of human life, but also to the development of concomitant disease associated with inadequate mechanical and chemical processing of food.
If the disease has not led to the development of an erosive-ulcerative process, then patients are prescribed conservative methods of treatment, including taking antisecretory, wrapping, antacid drugs, histamine H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors and herbal medicines.
One of the most important conditions for the successful treatment of acute and chronic gastritis is a diet that provides for the exclusion of certain foods from the diet, as well as separate recommendations for cooking.
Characteristics of gastritis
Even minimal inflammation in gastritis over time leads to cessation of the functional activity of the organ. The danger of this pathological condition lies in the fact that with the prolonged slow development of gastritis leads to corrosive and ulcerative lesions of the stomach walls with an increased risk of malignant neoplasms. Of all the parts of the human digestive system, the stomach is the most vulnerable ligament, which is due to constant contact with food and digestive juices, including hydrochloric acid.
Great! In the modern world, gastritis is one of the most urgent diseases. This pathology is widespread everywhere, but to a greater extent the frequency is recorded in the territory of economically developed countries.
In addition to the subdivision of the forms of the pathological process, gastritis is conventionally classified into the following types:
Based on the nature of the violations of the acid-forming function, gastritis is isolated with increased, decreased and maintained acidity.
Inflammatory lesions of the stomach occur with equal frequency in children, adolescents, adults and the elderly. Both endogenous (internal) and exogenous (external) factors can influence the development of the inflammatory process.
The following factors may have a potential effect on the development of an acute or chronic inflammatory process in the stomach:
- regular exposure to stress and psycho-emotional overload in the human body.
- helminthic invasions.
- poor diet, regular consumption of alcoholic beverages and smoking.
- the aggressive effect of Helicobacter pylori bacteria on the stomach walls.
- long-term use of certain groups of drugs, in particular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- the presence of concomitant diseases of the digestive system.
In addition to exogenous factors, there is a list of internal causes that can cause the development of acute and chronic gastritis. These reasons include:
- dyshormonal disorders
- disorder of the immune complexes;
- gastroduodenal reflux
- hereditary predisposition to the development of diseases of the digestive system.
- disorder of the autonomic nervous system, resulting in increased production of hydrochloric acid.
Symptoms of the disease
Due to the long asymptomatic course, a person for many years may not be aware of the development of an inflammatory process in the stomach.
The clinical picture of inflammatory lesions of the gastric wall depends directly on the type of gastritis itself and the phase of its course. For the acute form of the inflammatory process, the following complex of symptoms is typical:
- pulling or squeezing pain in the epigastric region (epigastric region).
- motion sickness;
- sour belching;
- increased gas production in the intestines (flatulence)
- alternating constipation and diarrhea.
Diet when the disease worsens
The stage of exacerbation of inflammatory changes in the stomach involves the observance of strict dietary recommendations. The basic principle of such a diet is the use of foods that slightly affect the mucosa. It is necessary to observe not only the restrictions of food, but also the rules for the preparation of dishes, the temperature of consumption and their consistency. Foods that are too cold or too hot increase the production of hydrochloric acid, so all meals should be at body temperature. During the acute onset of the disease, patients are advised to adhere to Table 1A, which provides for severe dietary restriction.
A few days after the onset of acute symptoms, patients are transferred to Table 1B. It is recommended to cook each dish boiled or steamed. If the food is cooked in the oven, it is necessary to avoid the formation of a golden brown crust. The initial diet includes limiting table salt to 6 g per day. The amount of water consumed must be at least 2 liters. The general menu of a patient with acute manifestations of gastritis includes pureed soups, as well as side dishes of cereals that have a thin consistency. To reduce the amount of substances that stimulate the production of digestive digestion in meat raw materials, it is recommended to cook it for a long time and serve it as a puree. All fish dishes should be prepared with lean fish. Boil fruit and vegetable ingredients before use. Patients with severe manifestations of the disease are advised to consume old wheat bread (1-2 days), whole milk, cottage cheese, jelly, soft boiled eggs, weak black tea and cocoa without sugar.
When there is a relative reduction in the acute manifestations of the disease, patients are supplemented with new ingredients in their diet. Dishes made from meat and fish ingredients can be served in amorphous form, the use of cereals in a crumbly texture is allowed. Most often, the acute form of the inflammatory process is characteristic of the peracid type of the disease (this type of gastritis is accompanied by increased release of hydrochloric acid). In very rare cases, this condition develops with hypoxic type pathology (this is gastritis, which is accompanied by low secretion of gastric juice). During the recovery period, these patients are prescribed dietary products that stimulate the production of digestive juice (Table 2).
During the period of aggravation of the pathological process, it is recommended to eat cash, in limited doses, for several days. As the acute manifestations of the disease subside, the diet is supplemented with dishes of animal products, boiled eggs, vegetables and mashed potatoes. The daily diet of patients with acute illness may include the following foods:
- natural jelly?
- cereals (preferably rice, semolina and buckwheat);
- baked goods yesterday;
- beef, turkey and chicken
- species of fish such as perch and carp.
- Steamed egg dishes
- weak black tea with whole milk.
Some or all of the restrictions include: raw root vegetables, sour cream, cottage cheese, various cheeses, sauces, spices, canned meat and fish, legumes, corn and wheat porridge, rye bread, mustard, kavadas, coffee, dioxa drinks.
The use of onions, white cabbage, radish, turnips, cucumbers, sorrel, spinach without prior heat treatment is not highly recommended.
The use of canned vegetables, mushrooms, fried and boiled eggs, snacks, confectionery, alcoholic beverages is prohibited.
Menu for acute gastritis
The menu for patients with acute manifestations of gastritis is prescribed for an average of 10 days.
On the first day after the onset of the acute reign, complete starvation is recommended in one person. In exceptional cases, it is allowed to consume black tea without added sugar, as well as to consume at least 1. 5 liters of water per day.
On the second day, it is allowed to consume 250 ml of milk and 2 soft boiled eggs in the morning. For the second breakfast, the use of 1-2 baked apples is allowed. Lunch on the second day after the onset of symptoms includes jelly, steamed chicken soufflé, and grated oatmeal soup. Afternoon snack includes rosehip uzvar and sour cream. For dinner, it is recommended to consume 200-250 ml of milk and milk porridge from grated rice cereals. The night before going to bed, you can drink 150-200 ml of milk.
From 3 to 6 days, the diet of a person with acute gastritis looks like this:
- BREAKFAST. Steamed egg soufflé, bread crumbs and tea without sugar and milk drink.
- Repeated breakfast. Any jelly, porridge milk-rice.
- Dinner. Sugar-free fruit compote, steamed beef souffle, grated oat soup.
- Afternoon snack. Whole milk tea, whipped cottage cheese without sugar.
- Dinner. Any jelly, porridge milk-rice. Before going to bed, you are allowed to consume 1 glass of milk.
From 6 to 10 days of the diet, the following diet is prescribed to patients with acute gastritis:
- BREAKFAST. In the morning, it is allowed to consume black tea without added sugar, Adyghe cheese or cottage cheese, soft boiled egg, as well as oatmeal with the addition of milk.
- Repeated breakfast. At this time of day, it is recommended to drink 200-250 ml of rosehip broth.
- Dinner. For lunch, serve jelly, mashed potatoes with meatballs, unconcentrated chicken broth.
- Afternoon snack. In the afternoon snack, the patient is advised to drink a drink with milk tea and use wheat crackers.
- Dinner. Tea, rice cooker and fish. Before going to bed, it is recommended to use a glass of low-fat kefir.
If a patient is diagnosed with acute phase of acute gastritis, then his diet is supplemented with first courses such as: pickles, borscht, bamboo, cooked in fat-free mushroom, fish or chicken broth. The mentioned dishes have a stimulating effect on the acid-forming function.
Diet for the chronic form of the disease
Depending on the course of the acute phase, a slow inflammatory process must also comply with individual dietary recommendations. The composition of the diet for chronic pathological change depends directly on the type of pathology (atrophic or superficial years), its form, the results of the examination, as well as the general condition of the patient.
With a sustained or increased acid formation function, the patient's diet begins with the use of Table no. 1. If a person is diagnosed with inhibition of hydrochloric acid synthesis, then the basic diet is table No. 2. When a person begins to recover, he is transferred to table no. 15. The diet of people with hypotonic gastritis has a number of basic rules, among which there are four:
- Creating the necessary conditions to reduce the intensity of the inflammatory response.
- Formulation of optimal nutrition that includes vital nutrients, vitamins, proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- Complete elimination of factors of negative effects on the structures of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Normalization of the muscle tone of the gastrointestinal tract and harmonization of the acidic function of the stomach.
Depending on the severity of the inflammatory changes, a person's general well-being, and the type of gastritis, daily meals may include amorphous and chopped meals. It is recommended to steam food, boil and bake without forming a golden brown crust. The recommended temperature for serving food is not higher than 60 degrees and not lower than 15. It is necessary to eat several times a day (at least 5 times), in limited portions. A prerequisite for such a diet is the daily consumption of 200-250 ml of cow's milk or cream with a minimum percentage of fat before going to bed. It is recommended in patients with diagnosed inactive damage to the gastric mucosa to include the following components in the diet:
- rice, buckwheat, oats and semolina;
- Steamed vegetable ingredients, chopped in a blender or sifted (potatoes, cauliflower, broccoli, beets, carrots, young green peas, zucchini and ripe tomatoes).
- beef, turkey and chicken, rabbit meat;
- fat-free curd mass;
- steamed egg omelette
- lime and steamed fish;
- non-smoked sausages, liver pate, lean ham, salmon caviar
- sweet varieties of berries and fruits, pre-baked.
It is recommended to completely exclude the use of such ingredients:
- canned products of animal origin, smoked meats;
- goose, pork, duck and lamb;
- some vegetables and root vegetables (rutabagas, turnips, radishes, peas, beans, cabbage and brussels sprouts).
- the first courses like okroshka, hodgepodge, borscht?
- any products containing an increased amount of connective tissue fibers (cartilage, bird skin);
- mushrooms, dried, smoked and salted fish;
- canned and lightly salted vegetables.
- spinach leaves, fresh herbs, garlic, onions
- carbon dioxide drinks, alcoholic beverages.
Menu for chronic gastritis
An approximate menu of a person suffering from a slow form of this disease is as follows:
- BREAKFAST. Buckwheat prepared with the addition of whole milk, cottage cheese seasoned with low-fat cream.
- Repeated breakfast. 250 ml of milk.
- Dinner. Steamed diet zrazy meat, lean semolina soup, omelette with steamed egg and jelly.
- Dinner. Semi-processed steamed fish, chopped pasta and tea with whole milk.
- For the night. 200 ml of skim milk or kefir.
Can gastritis be treated with diet?
In contrast to the acute form of the pathological process, chronic gastritis is more difficult to treat conservatively. If a person is diagnosed with one of the forms and types of the disease, a person is prescribed a complex treatment, including medication, lifestyle correction, dietary recommendations and a consumption pattern. Thanks to the use of certain groups of drugs, it is possible to normalize the acid-forming function of the stomach, eliminate characteristic disorders of digestive activity and prevent the development of an erosive and ulcerative process. Nutritional recommendations allow you to enhance the effect of medication, as well as prevent additional trauma to the mucous membrane of the gastric wall.
In addition to a specialized diet, it is recommended that patients with a similar diagnosis receive mineral water. With peroxic gastritis, the healing waters are used hot. It is recommended to take medical water 60 minutes before meals. With preserved or insufficient acidity, water is used at room temperature, which is drunk in small sips 20 minutes before a meal. Sodium chloride mineral water is used to treat pathology with preserved or insufficient acidity.
It is important to remember that any attempts at self-medication can lead to the development of serious consequences, therefore, the treating gastroenterologist should be concerned with the preparation of dietary recommendations and the selection of mineral waters for the treatment of gastritis.
Nutritional characteristics for gastritis with low acidity
In case of gastritis with insufficient secretion of gastric juice, it is worth following important rules:
- Be very careful with the diseased organ.
- Stimulate increased gastric acid secretion.
A huge role in the second rule is played by foods that activate and increase the secretion of gastric juice, such as:
- strong fish and meat broths;
- vegetable broths?
- mushroom soups and decoction;
- natural vegetable and fruit juices;
- steamed meat and fish cutlets;
- dairy products (mainly lactic acid);
- puree of vegetables and fruits.
- other foods with a strong smell and strong taste (which increase the appetite).
But the most important rule when preparing a menu with such products is to prepare them in such a way that the food does not irritate the gastric mucosa and does not remain for a long time. That is: boiling, slicing, fractional nutrition. It is important to wash well, pour boiling water over all products before cooking. Hydrochloric acid fights bacteria, if not enough, then additional infection can be introduced with food. You need to chew the food well - this gives extra secretion of gastric juice.
Nutritional characteristics for gastritis with high acidity
The main basic rules for this disease:
- Save as much gastric mucosa as possible.
- Eat foods that reduce the release of hydrochloric acid.
Recommended foods to reduce gastric secretion are:
- milk porridge with cereals.
- without acid fats: sour cream, cottage cheese
- eggs (only soft-boiled or in the form of a steam omelette);
- boiled meat and fish - low fat varieties
- vegetables: potatoes, beets, carrots - in the form of mashed potatoes and pudding.
- buckwheat, oatmeal, pearl barley, rice, semolina porridge
- boiled pasta and pasta;
- fruits of only sweet varieties in the form of jellies and compotes.
- butter and refined butter in small doses.
A systematic fractional diet with proper food preparation (chopping, steaming, thorough cleaning of dirt and germs, etc. ) will give a positive result and will speed up the healing process.
List of allowed and forbidden foods for gastritis
|Products and dishes||Can||It's impossible|
|Bakery, bakery products||
in soups (for sauce), you can add fresh sour cream with low fat, eggs, butter
|Meat and fish dishes||
the food is steamed or in the oven - without crust (all tendons are removed)
boiled or steamed vegetable dishes
|Fruits, berries, nuts||Ripe, sweet fruits and berries:
Berries and fruits are used after heat treatment in chopped and mashed form (jellies, compotes, jellies, mousses, baked in the oven. )
|Cereals and pasta||
in the form of cereals in milk or water
|Milk and dairy products||
mainly as an ingredient or addition to a dish
no more than 2 eggs a day
|Spices, sauces, spices||
all this in small quantities - rarely
When compiling the menu, it is necessary to take into account the type of gastritis (with high or low acidity), the form of the course of the disease (acute or chronic), individual food intolerance. And also, you should definitely consult a gastroenterologist, who will accurately determine the list of products for you and choose the right menu.